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References Useful in Understanding More About Biting Midges

Morphology and Taxonomy of biting midges:

Blanton, F.S. and W.W. Wirth. 1979. The sand flies (Culicoides) of Florida (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas 10, xv + 204 pp.

Boorman, J. 1997.  2.21 Family Ceratopogonidae, pp. 349-368 In Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera (with special reference to flies of economic importance). Volume 2. Science Herald, Budapest, Hungary. 592 pp.

Borkent, A. 2004. Insecta: Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. pp. 683-710. In Freshwater Invertebrates of the Malaysian Region. C.M. Yule, H.S. Yong (eds.). vii + 861 pp., Academy of Sciences Malaysia.

Borkent, A. 2012. The pupae of Culicomorpha—morphology and a new phylogenetic tree. Zootaxa 3396:1–98.

Borkent, A. 2017. 34. Ceratopogonidae (Biting Midges). pp. 733-812, In: Kirk-Spriggs, A.H. and Sinclair, B.J. (eds). Manual of Afrotropical Diptera. Volume 2. Nematocerous Diptera and lower Brachycera. Suricata 5. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Borkent, A. and G.R. Spinelli. 2007. Neotropical Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Insecta). In: Adis, J., J.R. Arias, G. Rueda-Delgado, and K.M. Wnatzen (Eds.): Aquatic Biodiversity in Latin America (ABLA). Vol. 4. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow, 198 pp.

Borkent, A., G.R. Spinelli and W.L. Grogan. 2009. Ceratopogonidae. pp. 407-435. In Brown, B.V., A. Borkent, J.M. Cumming, D.M. Wood, N.E. Woodley, and M.A. Zumbado (editors). Manual of Central American Diptera: Volume 1. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. xi + 714 pp.

Borkent, A. and W.L. Grogan. 2009. Catalog of the New World biting midges north of Mexico (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Zootaxa 2273:1-48.

Borkent, A. and G.R. Spinelli. 2000. Catalog of New World Biting Midges South of the United States (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Contributions on Entomology, International 4:1-107.

 (this work includes references to all pertinent taxonomic literature for each genus, including available keys).

Downes, J.A. and W.W. Wirth. 1981.  28. Ceratopogonidae. pp. 393-421 in Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Volume 1. McAlpine, J.F., B.V. Peterson, G.E. Shewell, H.J. Teskey, J.R. Vockeroth, and D.M. Wood (coordinators). Agriculture Canada Monograph 27. 674 pp.

Specifically for Culicoides:

Wirth, W.W. and F.S. Blanton. 1959. Biting midges of the genus Culicoides from Panama (Diptera: Heleidae). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 109:237-482.

Dyce, A. L., G. A. Bellis, and M. J. Muller. 2007. Pictorial atlas of Australasian Culicoides wings (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra, Australia. 88 pp.

Wirth, W.W. and W.L. Grogan. 1988. The predaceous midges of the world (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae; Tribe Ceratopogonini). Flora and Fauna Handbook 4, xv + 160 pp., E.J. Brill.

Wirth, W.W., A.L. Dyce, and B.V. Peterson. 1985. An atlas of wing photographs, with a summaryof the numerical characters of the Nearctic species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 22(4):1-46.

Wirth, W.W., A.L. Dyce, and G.R. Spinelli. 1988. An atlas of wing photographs, with a summary of the numerical characters of the Neotropical species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 25:1-72.

List of all the species in the world:

Borkent, A. and P. Dominiak 2020. Catalog of the Biting Midges of the World (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Zootaxa 4787: 1-377.

Borkent, A., P. Dominiak and F. Díaz. 2022. An update and errata for the catalog of the Biting Midges of the World (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Zootaxa 5120: 53–64.

The Incredible Fossil Record of Biting Midges (most in amber):

Borkent, A. 1995. Biting Midges in the Cretaceous Amber of North America (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands. 237 pp.

Borkent, A. 2000. Biting midges (Ceratopogonidae: Diptera) from Lower Cretaceous Lebanese amber with a discussion of the diversity and patterns found in other ambers. pp. 355-451, in: D. Grimaldi (ed.), Studies on Fossils in Amber, with Particular Reference to the Cretaceous of New Jersey. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands, viii + 498 pp.

Borkent, A. 2019. The phylogenetic relationships of Cretaceous biting midges, with a key to all known genera (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). American Museum Novitates 3921: 1-48.

Szadziewski, R. 1988.  Biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) from Baltic amber. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 58:3-283.

Szadziewski, R. 1996.  Biting midges from Lower Cretaceous amber of Lebanon and Upper Cretaceous Siberian amber of Taimyr (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae).  Studia Dipterologica 3:23-86.

Behaviour and bionomics:

Kettle, D.S. 1977.  Biology and bionomics of bloodsucking ceratopogonids.  Ann. Rev. Entomol. 22:33-51.

Wirth, W.W., N.C. Ratanaworabhan, and D.H. Messersmith. 1977. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland.  XXII. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). 1. Introduction and key to genera.  Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 90:615-647.

A detailed list of all the diseases known to be transmitted by biting midges:

Borkent, A. 2004. 10. The Biting Midges, the Ceratopogonidae (Diptera). pp.113-126. In Biology of Disease Vectors, 2nd edition. William C. Marquardt (ed.). xxiii + 785 pp., Elsevier Academic Press.

Halouzka, J. and Z. Hubalek. 1996. Biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) of medical and veterinary importance (a review). Acta Scientifiarum Naturalium Academiae Scientiarum Bohemicae Brno 30 (2):1-56 (this work includes references to all available work on each of the diseases).

Pollination by Biting Midges:

Bystrak, P.G. and W.W. Wirth. 1978. The North American species of Forcipomyia, subgenus Euprojoannisia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 1591, 51 pp.

Warmke, H.E. 1951. Studies on pollination of Hevea brasiliensis in Puerto Rico. Science 113:646- 648. 

Warmke, H.E. 1952. Studies on natural pollination of Hevea brasiliensis in Brazil. Science 116:474- 475.

Young, A.M. 1986. Cocoa Pollination. Cocoa Grow. Bull. 37:5-23.

Young, A.M. 2007. The chocolate tree, a natural history of cacao. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. xvi + 218 pp.

Wirth, W.W. 1956. The heleid midges involved in the pollination of rubber trees in America (Diptera, Heleidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 58:241-250.