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More Information on Biting Midges

Various chapters I have written for the Manual of Central American Diptera (2009), the Manual of Afrotropical Diptera (2017) and The Biology of Disease Vectors (2004) give a broad overview of family.

Aside from these and other published literature, there are some excellent resources on the web.

The Ceratopogonidae Information Exchange (CIE) appears twice a year for many decades and is faithfully organized by Steve Murphree. It includes current research, requests for help, a directory to others working on biting midges and the latest publications and more.

A Chaos of Delight by Andy Murray includes a page on the remarkable diversity of Forcipomyia larvae with absolutely stunning photos of the larvae and their modifications, including the secretions they produce from strong bristles on their bodies.  Amazing!

The Gnatwork is directed to those working on biting midges, blackflies and sandflies and provides information on various projects. For Ceratopogonidae, these concern themselves with Culicoides, many species of which are of medical and veterinary concern.

Of course, some websites, such as iNaturalist, have many lovely photographs of biting midges that show, at least for adults, how diverse they are.