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Information on Biting Midges

Various chapters I have written for the Manual of Central American Diptera (2009), the Manual of Afrotropical Diptera (2017) and The Biology of Disease Vectors (2004) give a broad overview of family.

Aside from these and other published literature, there are some excellent resources on the web.

The Ceratopogonidae Information Exchange (CIE) appears twice a year for many decades and is faithfully organized by Steve Murphree. It includes current research, requests for help, a directory to others working on biting midges and the latest publications and more.

A Chaos of Delight by Andy Murray includes a page on the remarkable diversity of Forcipomyia larvae with absolutely stunning photos of the larvae and their modifications, including the secretions they produce from strong bristles on their bodies.  Amazing!

The Gnatwork is directed to those working on biting midges, blackflies and sandflies and provides information on various projects. For Ceratopogonidae, these concern themselves with Culicoides, many species of which are of medical and veterinary concern.

Of course, some websites, such as iNaturalist, have many lovely photographs of biting midges that show, at least for adults, how diverse they are.

General info and links

The Ceratopogonidae, commonly known as biting midges, no-see-ums or punkies, have a bad reputation a…

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Culicoides Diversity

Their Classification and Diversity There are now more than 1,360 species of Culicoides known worldwi…

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Recognizing a Biting Midge

There are 161 different families of true flies (of the order Diptera) in the world and these make up…

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Why study Biting Midges?

There are numerous reasons to study biting midges. Primarily, in a world where we have become acutel…

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Biting Midges as Pests

Anyone with any significant outdoor experience knows that biting midges can be terribly annoying. Th…

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Protecting Oneself from Biting Midges

There are a number of strategies which can be used to fend off the effects of biting midges. When ou…

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Biting Midges as Beneficial

There are several important roles which biting midges play in ecosystems. As larvae, many are predat…

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How and Where do Biting Midges Live?

Like other holometabolous insects, Ceratopogonidae have four distinct life stages: egg, larva, pupa …

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How Many Species are out There?

The biting midges are an extremely diverse group, with over 6200 species named worldwide. As for so …

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How to Capture and Study Biting Midges

Adult biting midges may collected by any of the following techniques: 1. Sweeping vegetation, especi…

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Classification and Identification

There are currently 108 genera of Ceratopogonidae grouping the more than 6,200 named species and the…

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Future Research

As is true in most areas of science, we understand far less about ceratopogonids than we actually do…

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References Useful in Understanding More About Biting Midges

Morphology and Taxonomy of biting midges: Blanton, F.S. and W.W. Wirth. 1979. The sand flies (Culico…

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